The Bullies, why do they do it?- By Andie Harvey

Book- ' Bullies and Victims in Schools' by Valerie E. Besag. 1989 first publication and this publication.

p27, one cause of bullying is the power of the victim as the book states "Most definitions of bullying encapsulate the idea of there being an uneven distribution of power, i.e. a lack of physical strength or assertiveness on the part of the victim."

P27, "play fights are common between young boys as a means of informally establishing a hierachy of dominance." - Compared to natural instinct of animals.

P28 Also done to impress "Highly agressive children appear not only to seek out conflict situations, but to choose where they may best be observed by their peers."

P29 "The need to feel dominant over others, as is shown in bullying among children, may remain through the adult years but be expressed in a different manner."

P33 "A wind range of explanations has been offered for aggressive behavior: decor, food additives, diet, medical conditions and, of course, previous experiences of all forms."

P33 "Some children may have genuine difficulty in understanding the view of others and, being unable to empathize with the distress of their peers, regard their own teasing and taunting of tem as just 'messing about'."

P34 "A poor self- image, little confidence and feelings of hopelessness can result in some children failing to understand the effect of the behaviour on others."

P35 "The bullying child may select to offend, for whatever reason, from a large repertoire of behaviours."

P35 "Past experiences may have coloured the perceptions and attitudes of the child."

P35 "During puberty hormonal changes correspond to parallel emotional development, leading to a stage where there can be a severe lack of confidence and an increase in confusing moods and phases of regression."

P35 " Young people often look towards their contempories for guidence and confirmation regarding codes of behaviour as well as to other models."

P36 "Several studies have shown parenting practices to be highly influential in controlling or encouragin aggressive behaviour."

P36 " Some parents, however, do not train their children to suppress their aggressive impulses, perhaps they live in communities where law and order are not as much in evidence."

P39 "biological influences are far outweighed by the sociocultural structurem - the norms, values and institutions of society."

P39 "males and females are equally able to be influenced by cultural pressures."

P39 "There is more pressure on a boy to be tough than on a girl not to be a tomboy, and fathers have been found to be more boisterous and robust in playing with their baby sons than they are with their daughters."

P39 "Boys may perhaps be more biologically prepared to learn dominance, competiveness and aggression, whereas girls may be more receptive to training in inhibition."

P40 "Boys are thought to emphasize the hierarchy of dominance within their group more than girls who perhaps stress intimacy and other affective aspects in relationships."

P59 "Research on bullying would seem to indicate that family factors are of considerable significance in the development of the personality of the child who bullies others and the child at risk of being bullied."

P103 "The local authority and the governing body could offer support to a school policy designed to prevent bullying." - Should maybe contact them and get in touch with schools who have bullying.

P107 "Teachers are models for the young in their care who note details of their attitude and behaviour."

P107 "Young people may look to the adults in school for guidence and a code of conduct which could influence the way they themselves treat others."

The sorce of Bullying by Otonye Young-Harry

Book - Olwens,D.,1993.Bullying at school.What we know and what we can do.8th ed.Oxford:Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

P9, bullying derives from an indivudal being exposed continuously to negative actions on the part of one or more students.

'P9, verbal bullying.'Negative actions can be carried out by words i.e. threatening,taunting,teasing and calling names.

P10, For bullying to be apparent there should be a power difference. " An imbalance in strength (an asymmetric power relationship.) The student who is exposed to the negatice actions has difficulty defending him/herself and is somewhat helpless against the students or student who harass".- Therefore because of this power difference it causes the victims to then seek for individuals who they can empower. It remains a endless cycle.

'P10, another side of bullying, which is pivotal, is 'indirect bullying, i.e. "social isolation and intentional exclusion from a group". Therefore because of the victims being excluded, it causes them to form their own groups, which excludes people who do not match, their group's criteria.

What is bullying? Bullying is persistent unwelcome behaviour, mostly using unwarranted or invalid criticism, nit-picking, fault-finding, also exclusion, isolation, being singled out and treated differently, being shouted at, humiliated, excessive monitoring, having verbal and written warnings imposed, and much more. In the workplace, bullying usually focuses on distorted or fabricated allegations of underperformance. Click here for definitions of workplace bullying. Why do people bully? The purpose of bullying is to hide inadequacy. Bullying has nothing to do with managing etc; good managers manage, bad managers bully. Management is managing; bullying is not managing. Therefore, anyone who chooses to bully is admitting their inadequacy, and the extent to which a person bullies is a measure of their inadequacy. Bullies project their inadequacy on to others: a) to avoid facing up to their inadequacy and doing something about it; b) to avoid accepting responsibility for their behaviour and the effect it has on others, and, c) to reduce their fear of being seen for what they are, namely a weak, inadequate and often incompetent individuals, and, d) to divert attention away from their inadequacy - in an insecure or badly-managed workplace, this is how inadequate, incompetent and aggressive employees keep their jobs. Bullying is an inefficient way of working, resulting in disenchantment, demoralisation, demotivation, disaffection, and alienation. Bullies run dysfunctional and inefficient organisations; staff turnover and sickness absence are high whilst morale, productivity and profitability are low. Prosperity is illusory and such organizations are a bad long-term investment. Projection and denial are hallmarks of the serial bully. Bullying is present behind all forms of harassment, discrimination, prejudice, abuse, persecution, conflict and violence. When the bullying has a focus (eg race or gender) it is expressed as racial prejudice or harassment, or sexual discrimination and harassment, and so on. When the bullying lacks a focus (or the bully is aware of the Sex Discrimination Act or the Race Relations Act), it comes out as pure bullying; this is an opportunity to understand the behaviours which underlie almost all reprehensible behavior. I believe bullying is the single most important social issue of today. Bullying...

AdedeborahigeMDX 23:26, March 7, 2011 (UTC)

Bullying Is a Big ProblemEdit

Every day thousands of teens wake up afraid to go to school. Bullying is a problem that affects millions of students, and it has everyone worried, not just the kids on its receiving end. Yet because parents, teachers, and other adults don't always see it, they may not understand how extreme bullying can get.

Bullying is when a person is picked on over and over again by an individual or group with more power, either in terms of physical strength or social standing.

Two of the main reasons people are bullied are because of appearance and social status. Bullies pick on the people they think don't fit in, maybe because of how they look, how they act (for example, kids who are shy and withdrawn), their race or religion, or because the bullies think their target may be gay or lesbian.

Some bullies attack their targets physically, which can mean anything from shoving or tripping to punching or hitting, or even sexual assault. Others use psychological control or verbal insults to put themselves in charge. For example, people in popular groups or cliques often bully people they categorize as different by excluding them or gossiping about them (psychological bullying). They may also taunt or tease their targets (verbal bullying).

Verbal bullying can also involve sending cruel instant or email messages or even posting insults about a person on a website — practices that are known as cyberbullying.

How Does Bullying Make People Feel?Edit

One of the most painful aspects of bullying is that it is relentless. Most people can take one episode of teasing or name calling or being shunned at the mall. However, when it goes on and on, bullying can put a person in a state of constant fear.

Guys and girls who are bullied may find their schoolwork and health suffering. Amber began having stomach pains and diarrhea and was diagnosed with a digestive condition called irritable bowel syndrome as a result of the stress that came from being bullied throughout ninth grade. Mafooz spent his afternoons hungry and unable to concentrate in class because he was too afraid to go to the school cafeteria at lunchtime.

Studies show that people who are abused by their peers are at risk for mental health problems, such as low self-esteem, stress, depression, or anxiety. They may also think about suicide more.

Bullies are at risk for problems, too. Bullying is violence, and it often leads to more violent behavior as the bully grows up. It's estimated that 1 out of 4 elementary-school bullies will have a criminal record by the time they are 30. Some teen bullies end up being rejected by their peers and lose friendships as they grow older. Bullies may also fail in school and not have the career or relationship success that other people enjoy
Sam Wood MDX 15:21, March 21, 2011 (UTC)