Some of our original research for our campaign. Research on Common STI’s and theyre effects.

The Health Protection Agency found that in 2008 in the UK 12% of the population being 16-24 (this age group is responsible for over half of all newly diagnosed STI’s) (Health Protection Agency statistics below)*65% of chlamydia,

  • 55% of genital warts,
  • 47% of gonorrhoea,
  • 44% of herpes, and
  • 17% of syphilis infections diagnosed in GUM (genitourinary medicine) clinics last year.

Most Common STI’s according to NHS website;*chlamydia

Chlamydia-*Most common STI

  • People under 25 most likely
  • Under 25s can get a free, confidential chlamydia test through theNational Chlamydia Screening Programme.
  • Diagnosed through swab or urine test
  • Treated with anti biotics
  • If left untreated, could lead to infertility - spread to the womb can cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID).
  • Doesnt always have symptoms
  • However symptoms in women can include ; Cystitis (pain when passing urine), a change in their vaginal discharge, lower abdominal pain, pain and/or bleeding during sexual intercourse, bleeding after sex, or bleeding between periods or heavier periods.
  • Symptoms in men can include;a white, cloudy or watery discharge from the tip of the penis, pain when passing urine, or pain in the testicles. Risk of reactive arthritis and infertility

Genital Warts-*‘small fleshy growths, bumps or skin changes that appear on or around the genital or anal area.’

  • occurs highest in males 20-24, females 16-19
  • Treated with cream, lotion, chemical (topical treatment), and cryotherapy (freezing warts- physical ablation could include lasers or electricity), could take up to 3 months to be fully effective.
  • Symptoms usually visibles in two to three months of getting HPV infection (not always- ‘incubation periods of up to a year have been reported’
  • Warts look different on men and women- women’s grow as small lumps that get bigger, men’s look like warts on hands (‘firm and raised, with a rough surface’)
  • Can appear as a single wart, cluster of warts to form ‘cauliflower’ appearance.
  • Painless though may be itchy or irritated, especially around the anus. Also can experience bleeding from the warts during sexual intercourse.
  • Developed warts on the urethra can disrupt urine flow.
  • Genital warts caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • Prevention, condoms, Gardasil vaccine

Genital Herpes-*Genital herpes caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV)

  • type 1 or type 2
  • Mouth- Cause blister like lesions called cold sores.
  • Chronic (long-term) condition. Recurrences, 4-5 times in first two years infected. Over time less severe and less frequent
  • Highly contagious
  • the HSV virus remain inactive (dormant) for a long time. NHS state ‘8 out of 10 people who carry the virus are unaware that they have been infected because there are often few or no initial symptoms’. Triggers activate virus resulting in outbreak.
  • Common condition 20-24 years
  • No cure, virus can be ‘controlled’ with anti-viral medicine
  • Symptoms can take months or years to show however if the symptoms show when you are first infected its known as a ‘primary infection’ these symptoms are more severe than ‘recurrent infection’
  • Primary infection - have infection for first time, symptoms include painful red blisters, pain when urinating, high temperature, aches and pains.
  • Reccurent infection - infection keeps returning,‘tingling, burning or itching sensation around your genitals’, (sometimes down your leg) before your blisters appear, painful red blisters.
  • Over time less frequent and severe.
  • NHS’s ‘triggers’; being unwell, stress, drinking excess amounts of alcohol, exposure to ultraviolet light, for example, using sunbeds, surgery on your genital area, having a weakened immune system (the body’s natural defence system), for example, as a result of havingchemotherapy (treatment for cancer)
  • Treatment depends on whether primary or recurrent infection
  • treatment with antiviral tablets which could have to be taken five times a day-Aciclovir (drug).does not eradicate virus, all effects stop working once you stop taking it

Gonorrhoea-*Gonorrhoea caused by bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhoeae or gonococcus

  • can be passed from a pregnant woman to her baby
  • symptoms are an unusual discharge from the vagina or penis and pain when urinating
  • men and women 16-24 most likely affected
  • Symptoms noticeable within two weeks of being infected
  • one in 10 infected men and half infected women will not show symptoms after contracting gonorrhoea
  • NHS state ‘In women, symptoms of gonorrhoea can include: an unusual discharge from the vagina, which may be thick, and green or yellow in colour, pain when passing urine, pain or tenderness in the lower abdominal area (this is less common), bleeding between periods or heavier periods (this is less common)’
  • NHS state ‘Nine out of 10 men who contract gonorrhoea experience symptoms after they are infected, which can include: an unusual discharge from the tip of the penis, which may be white, yellow or green, pain or a burning sensation when urinating, inflammation (swelling) of the foreskin, pain or tenderness in the testicles or prostate gland (this is rare)’
  • can be caught in the throat and eyes (conjunctivitis)
  • treatment single dose of anti biotics (injected or orally)
  • can also cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which causes long-term pelvic pain,ectopic pregnancy(egg plants itself outside of the woman, pregnancy has to be terminated and the baby doesnt survive) and infertility
  • when left untreated leads to swelling of the joints and tendons, skin rash, inflammation around the brain and spinal cord (meningitis), and the heart

Prevention-*Condom’s - male more effective than female condoms

  • Limiting the number of sexual partners
  • Getting tested frequently and after unprotected sex with someone new
  • NHS state ‘Be aware: if you think you may have contracted an STI, visit your local sexual health or genitourinary (GUM) clinic to have a check up.’

Services available in the UK-*GUM (genitourinary medicine) clinics, GP surgeries, sexual health and contraception clinics.

  • The National Chlamydia Screening Programme - free chlamydia tests under 25 sexually active.


Emergency contraception Condoms (male and female) Combined contraceptive pill Progestogen-only contraceptive pill Contraceptive implants and injections Contraceptive patch Diaphragms and caps Intrauterine device Intrauterine system Vasectomy Vaginal ring Female sterilisation

KatieMcDermottMDX 20:14, May 4, 2011 (UTC)